Numerous studies presented titanium’s osseointegration* characteristics and further research highlighted the positive impact of textured, functional surfaces on osseointegration.
Compared to smooth “as-machined” surfaces, it was posited that texturing not only improves bone integration and thus implant stability; it also allows for the growth of supportive tissue and may even provide antibacterial advantages.
Today, the gold standard for titanium implants features such textured surface on all areas where integration with bone needs to take place. These functional textured surfaces are found on diverse devices such as bone plates, hip joints, and cervical and dental implants.
Additional research has been conducted in recent years into examining the relationship between the roughness of a surface and both osseointegration and vascularisation rates. Determining the optimum values for surface roughness for a given set of conditions is expected to remain an area of focus for several years to come.
Although in the past, roughness was mostly described by the two dimensional Ra Value (a measure of the variation in height), 3D measurements including the arithmetical mean height of the surface (Sa), texture aspect ratio (STr), interfacial area ratio (Sdr), core void volume (Vvc) and valley void volume (Vvv) are all now commonly used to describe a desired end result.